# Crypto.org Mainnet: Running a Validator

This is detailed documentation for setting up a Validator on Crypto.org mainnet. Note that while anyone can set up a validator, only the top 100 validators are considered "active" and eligible to receive rewards. See FAQs for more info.

# Step 0: Notes on network upgrades

There are two ways to set up a node:

  1. For the host who would like to build a Validator with complete blockchain data from scratch,
  • Note that there were several breaking network upgrades, requiring upgrading at designated block heights. For more details on how to upgrade, we refer to this guide on running a full node.
  • Once you have a complete synced node, you can revisit this page and jump to the step of joining the networking as a validator.
  1. For hosts who would like to join the network and start validating quickly, one can:
  • Begin with the binary v4.2.6 and join the network by STATE-SYNC

To simplify this guide, we will be covering the second case here in this guide, and guide you to begin with binary v4.2.6 and join the network by STATE-SYNC.

# Pre-requisites

# Supported OS

We officially support macOS, Windows and Linux only. Other platforms may work, but there is no guarantee. We will extend our support to other platforms after we have stabilized our current architecture.

# Prepare your machine

For Crypto.org Chain mainnet, you will need a machine with the following minimum requirements to run different types of nodes:

Archive Node (setting pruning = nothing)

  • RAM: 64GB (Rocksdb)
  • Disk: 3.4TB
  • CPU: 4 cores

Default Full Node (setting pruning = default)

  • RAM: 64GB (Rocksdb) or 16GB (goleveldb)
  • Disk: 1.2TB (From quick sync)
  • CPU: 4 cores

Pruned Node (setting pruning = everything)

  • RAM: 64GB (Rocksdb) or 16GB (goleveldb)
  • Disk: 40GB (From quick sync)
  • CPU: 4 cores

Please note that the size of snapshots from Quicksync will keep growing.

# Step 1. Get the Crypto.org Chain Mainnet binary


The following is the minimal setup to join Crypto.org Chain Mainnet. Furthermore, you may want to run full nodes as sentries (see Tendermint), restrict your validator connections to only connect to your full nodes, use secure storage and key management service for your validator keys etc.

To simplify the following step, we will be using Linux for illustration. Binary for Mac and Windows are also available.

There are two options to install chain-maind:

# Option 1 - Install chain-maind released binaries from Github

  • To install Crypto.org Chain binaries from Github:

    $ curl -LOJ https://github.com/crypto-org-chain/chain-main/releases/download/v4.2.6/chain-main_4.2.6_Linux_x86_64.tar.gz
    $ tar -zxvf chain-main_4.2.6_Linux_x86_64.tar.gz
  • You can verify the installation by checking the version of the chain-maind, the current version is 4.2.6.

    # check the version of chain-maind
    $ ./chain-maind version


# Option 2 - Install chain-maind by homebrew


  • If you plan to play around with different networks (mainnet and testnet), we suggest you follow Option 1 to download the binary directly.

  • The binary downloaded from homebrew is only for interacting with mainnet. You cannot use it to interact with testnet.

To install binaries in Homebrew for macOS X or Linux

Homebrew is a free and open-source package management system for macOS X. Install the official Chain-maind formula from the terminal.

  • First, install the crypto-org-chain tap, a repository of our Homebrew chain-maind package:
  # tap the repo
  $ brew tap crypto-org-chain/chain-maind
  • Now, install the chain-maind with crypto-org-chain/chain-maind

      # install the chain-maind CLI tool
      $ brew install chain-maind
  • You can verify the installation by checking the version of the chain-maind

      # check the version of chain-maind
      $ chain-maind version

# Step 2. Configure chain-maind

Before kick-starting your node, we will have to configure the node so that it connects to the Crypto.org mainnet


  • Depending on your chain-maind home setting, the chain-maind configuration will be initialized to that home directory. To simplify the following steps, we will use the default chain-maind home directory ~/.chain-maind/ for illustration.
  • You can also put the chain-maind to your binary path and run it directly by chain-maind

# Step 2-1. Initialize chain-maind

  • First of all, you can initialize chain-maind by:

      $ ./chain-maind init [moniker] --chain-id crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1
    • This moniker will be the displayed id of your node when connected to Crypto.org Chain network. When providing the moniker value, make sure you drop the square brackets since they are not needed.

# Step 2-2. Configure chain-maind

  • Download and replace the Crypto.org mainnet genesis.json by:

    $ curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/crypto-org-chain/mainnet/main/crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1/genesis.json > ~/.chain-maind/config/genesis.json
  • Verify sha256sum checksum of the downloaded genesis.json. You should see OK! if the sha256sum checksum matches.

    $ if [[ $(sha256sum ~/.chain-maind/config/genesis.json | awk '{print $1}') = "d299dcfee6ae29ca280006eaa065799552b88b978e423f9ec3d8ab531873d882" ]]; then echo "OK"; else echo "MISMATCHED"; fi;


    • For Mac environment, sha256sum was not installed by default. In this case, you may setup sha256sum with this command:

      function sha256sum() { shasum -a 256 "$@" ; } && export -f sha256sum
  • In ~/.chain-maind/config/app.toml, update minimum gas price to avoid transaction spamming

    $ sed -i.bak -E 's#^(minimum-gas-prices[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+)""$#\1"0.025basecro"#' ~/.chain-maind/config/app.toml
  • For network configuration, in ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml, please modify the configurations of persistent_peers and create_empty_blocks_interval by:

    $ sed -i.bak -E 's#^(seeds[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$#\1"[email protected]:26656,[email protected]:26656,2c558095[email protected]:26656"#' ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml
    $ sed -i.bak -E 's#^(create_empty_blocks_interval[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$#\1"5s"#' ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml


The list of the seed is subject to change, you can also find the latest seed to connect here

# Step 2-3. Enable STATE-SYNC

With STATE-SYNC your node will download data related to the head or near the head of the chain and verify the data. This leads to drastically shorter times for joining a network for validators. For validators, it will be amazingly fast to sync the near head of the chain and join the network.


Blocks before state-sync trust height will NOT be queryable. If you want to run a full node or a validator with complete blockchain data; It is not suggested to use state-sync. Kindly refer to this guide on building a node with complete data.

Follow the below steps to enable state-sync:

  • For state-sync configuration, in ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml, please modify the configurations under [statesync] enable, rpc_servers, trust_height and trust_hash and add persistent_peers by:

    $ sed -i.bak -E 's#^(persistent_peers[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$#\1"[email protected]:26656,[email protected]:26656,2c558095[email protected]:26656"#' ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml
    $ sed -i.bak -E 's#^(seeds[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$#\1""#' ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml
    $ LATEST_HEIGHT=$(curl -s https://rpc.mainnet.crypto.org:443/block | jq -r .result.block.header.height); \
    TRUST_HASH=$(curl -s "https://rpc.mainnet.crypto.org:443/block?height=$BLOCK_HEIGHT" | jq -r .result.block_id.hash)
    $ sed -i.bak -E "s|^(enable[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$|\1true| ; \
    s|^(rpc_servers[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$|\1\"https://rpc.mainnet.crypto.org:443,https://rpc.mainnet.crypto.org:443\"| ; \
    s|^(trust_height[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$|\1$BLOCK_HEIGHT| ; \
    s|^(trust_hash[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$|\1\"$TRUST_HASH\"| ; \
    s|^(seeds[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+).*$|\1\"\"|" ~/.chain-maind/config/config.toml


    • For Mac environment, if jq is missing, you may install it by: brew install jq

Note: We suggest using persistent_peers instead of seeds to provide a stable state-sync experience.

# Step 3. Run everything

# Step 3-1. Run everything

Once the chain-maind has been configured, we are ready to start the node and sync the blockchain data:

  • Start chain-maind, e.g.:
  $ ./chain-maind start


  • (Optional for Linux) If you would like to have it running in the background, you can start chain-maind with systemd service, e.g.:
  $ git clone https://github.com/crypto-org-chain/chain-main.git && cd chain-main
  $ ./networks/create-service.sh
  $ sudo systemctl start chain-maind
  # view log
  $ journalctl -u chain-maind -f
Example: /etc/systemd/system/chain-maind.service created by script
# /etc/systemd/system/chain-maind.service

ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/chain-maind start --home /home/ubuntu/.chain-maind


It should begin fetching blocks from the other peers. Please wait until it is synced before moving onto the next step.


  • You can query the node syncing status by
    $ ./chain-maind status 2>&1 | jq '.SyncInfo.catching_up'
    If the above command returns false, it means that your node is synced; otherwise, it returns true and implies your node is still catching up.

# Step 3-2. Joining the network as a validator: Send a create-validator transaction

Once the node is synced, we are now ready to send a create-validator transaction and join the network, for example:

$ ./chain-maind tx staking create-validator \
--from=[name_of_your_key] \
--amount=[amount of cro, e.g. 1000cro] \
--pubkey='{"@type":"/cosmos.crypto.ed25519.PubKey","key":[validator_public_key]}' \
--moniker="[The_id_of_your_node]" \
--security-contact="[security contact email/contact method]" \
--chain-id="crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1" \
--commission-rate="[The_commission_rate_of_your_node, e.g. 0.1 (10%)]" \
--commission-max-rate="[The_maximum_commission_rate_of_your_node e.g. 0.2 (20%)]" \
--commission-max-change-rate="[The_maximum_change_of_commission_rate_per_day e.g. 0.01 (1%)]" \
--min-self-delegation="1" \
--gas 8000000 \
--gas-prices 0.1basecro

confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

You will be required to insert the following:

  • --from: The cro... address or the key name that holds your funds for initial delegation;
  • --amount: The amount of self-delegation provided to the validator as an initial staking;
  • --pubkey: The validator public key. Can be found using ./chain-maind tendermint show-validator.;
  • --moniker: A moniker (name) for your validator node;
  • --security-contact: Security contact email/contact method, it is strongly recommended to provide an email address for receiving important messages related to validator operation in the future;
  • --chain-id=: The chain-id of mainnet - crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1
  • --commission-rate: The commission rate charge on the delegator;
  • --commission-max-rate: The upper bound of the commission rate;
  • --commission-max-change-rate: The maximum daily increase of the validator commission. Please note this parameter cannot be changed after create-validator is processed;
  • --min-self-delegation: The lower threshold of validator's self-delegation amount, if the self-delegation drops below this number, all staked funds to the validator will be automatically unbonded and the validator will be inactive.

# Step 3-3. Check your validator status

Once the create-validator transaction completes, you can check if your validator has been added to the validator set:

$ ./chain-maind tendermint show-address
## [crocnclcons... address] ##
$ ./chain-maind query tendermint-validator-set | grep -c [crocnclcons...]
## 1 = Yes; 0 = Not yet added ##

You can also check your public key by:

$ ./chain-maind tendermint show-validator
## [crocnclconspub... address] ##

To further check if the validator is signing blocks, kindly run this script, for example:

$ curl -sSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/crypto-org-chain/chain-docs/master/docs/getting-started/assets/signature_checking/check-validator-up.sh | bash -s -- \
--tendermint-url https://rpc.mainnet.crypto.org:443 \
--pubkey $(cat ~/.chain-maind/config/priv_validator_key.json | jq -r '.pub_key.value')

The validator is in the active validator set under the address  <YOUR_VALIDATOR_ADDRESS>
The validator is signing @ Block#<BLOCK_HEIGHT> 👍

Congratulations! You've successfully set up a mainnet node and performed some basic transactions! You may refer to Wallet Management for more advanced operations and transactions.

# Basic Transactions and queries

# query bank balances - Check your transferable balance

You can check your transferable balance with the balances command under the bank module.

Example: Check your address balance
$ ./chain-maind query bank balances cro1quw5r22pxy8znjtdkgqc65atrm3x5hg6vycm5n

  - amount: "10005471622381693"
    denom: basecro
    next_key: null
    total: "0"

# tx bank send - Transfer operation

Transfer operation involves the transfer of tokens between two addresses.

# Send Funds [tx bank send <from_key_or_address> <to_address> <amount> <network_id>]

Example: Send 10cro from an address to another.
$ ./chain-maind tx bank send Default cro1j7pej8kplem4wt50p4hfvndhuw5jprxxn5625q 10cro --chain-id="crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1" --gas-prices 0.1basecro
  ## Transaction payload##
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

# tx staking - Staking operations


  • To get the 'validator-addr' with bech32 prefix, you can run with this command:

    ./chain-maind keys show Default --bech val

Staking operations involve the interaction between an address and a validator. It allows you to create a validator and lock/unlocking funds for staking purposes.

# Delegate you funds to a validator [tx staking delegate <validator-addr> <amount>]

To bond funds for staking, you can delegate funds to a validator by the delegate command. Note that you can look up validators and their operator address by the validator list on the explorer.

Example: Delegate funds from `Default` to a validator under the operator address `crocncl16k...edcer`
$ ./chain-maind tx staking delegate crocncl16kqr009ptgken6qsxnzfnyjfsq6q97g3uedcer 100cro --from Default --chain-id "crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1" --gas-prices 0.1basecro
## Transactions payload##
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

# Unbond your delegated funds [tx staking unbond <validator-addr> <amount>]

On the other hand, we can create an Unbond transaction to unbond the delegated funds

Example: Unbond funds from a validator under the address `crocncl16k...edcer`
$ ./chain-maind tx staking unbond crocncl16kqr009ptgken6qsxnzfnyjfsq6q97g3uedcer 100cro --from Default --chain-id "crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1" --gas-prices 0.1basecro
## Transaction payload##
confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y


  • Once your funds were unbonded, they will be locked until the unbonding_time has passed.

After you have delegated or create a validator, reward will be accumulated, you can check/ withdraw it by:

# query distribution validator-outstanding-rewards - Query un-withdrawn rewards for a validator

We can check distribution outstanding (un-withdrawn) rewards for a validator and all of their delegations by its operator address.

Example: Check all outstanding rewards under the operator address `crocncl1...zrf8`
$ ./chain-maind q distribution validator-outstanding-rewards crocncl1kkqxv3szgh099xezt7y38t5anqzue4s326zrf8 --gas-prices 0.1basecro
  - amount: "1920761912.927067330419141688"
    denom: basecro

# tx distribution validator-outstanding-rewards - Query un-withdrawn rewards for a validator

We can check distribution outstanding (un-withdrawn) rewards for a validator and all of their delegations by its operator address.

Example: Withdraw all outstanding under a delegation address:
$ ./chain-maind tx distribution withdraw-all-rewards --from [key_name] --chain-id crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1 --gas-prices 0.1basecro

confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y

# tx slashing unjail - Unjail a validator

Validator could be punished and jailed due to network misbehaviour, we can check the jailing status of a validator, for example:

$ ./chain-maind query staking validators -o json | jq
      "operator_address": "crocncl1hct8ye56gk80qjxvrx299yu9v98aqaxe0y5kvg",
      "consensus_pubkey": {
        "@type": "/cosmos.crypto.ed25519.PubKey",
        "key": "P1/aHuScW5myVs+xH10R8yFT2u0wwaCKXfDKSuVTl60="
      "jailed": true,

Where "jailed": true implies that the validator has been jailed. After the jailing period has passed, one can broadcast an unjail transaction to unjail the validator and resume its normal operations by

$ ./chain-maind tx slashing unjail --from [key_name] --chain-id crypto-org-chain-mainnet-1 --gas-prices 0.1basecro

  confirm transaction before signing and broadcasting [y/N]: y